Research Competencies in Music

Expected by NASM

Excerpts from:

National Association of Schools of Music Handbook 2007-2008

VIII.   ALL PROFESSIONAL BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN MUSIC AND ALL UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES LEADING TO TEACHER CERTIFICATION

IX.   SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN MUSIC

X.   GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN MUSIC

XIV.   SPECIFIC MASTER'S DEGREES

XVI.   DOCTORAL DEGREES IN MUSIC

APPENDIX I.D STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR OPERA AND MUSICAL THEATRE PROGRAMS

APPENDIX I.F STUDIES IN MUSIC, BUSINESS, MUSIC INDUSTRY


VIII.   ALL PROFESSIONAL BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN MUSIC AND ALL UNDERGRADUATE DEGREES LEADING TO TEACHER CERTIFICATION

6.   General Studies

a.   Competencies

Specific competency expectations are defined by the institution. Normally, students holding a professional undergraduate degree in music are expected to have:

(1) The ability to think, speak, and write clearly and effectively.

(4) Awareness that multiple disciplinary perspectives and techniques are available to consider all issues and responsibilities including, but not limited to, history, culture, moral and ethical issues, and decision-making.

(5) The ability to identify possibilities and locate information in other fields that have bearing on musical questions and endeavors.

(95)

IX.   SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN MUSIC

B.   Bachelor of Music in Music Theory

3.   Essential Competencies, Experiences, and Opportunities (in addition to those stated for all degree programs):

c.   Ability to use the tools of theoretical work including keyboard skills, written language, research techniques, and applicable technologies.

d.   An opportunity for independent study that culminates in a senior project or thesis is strongly recommended.

(100)

D.   Bachelor of Music in Music History and Literature

3.   Essential Competencies, Experiences, and Opportunities (in addition to those stated for all degree programs):

c.   Ability to use effectively the tools of scholarship including keyboard skills, spoken and written language, research techniques, advanced musical analysis, and applicable technologies. Reading skill in foreign languages is essential.

d.   An opportunity for independent study that culminates in a senior project or thesis is strongly recommended.

(101)

H.   Baccalaureate Degree in Music Therapy

3.   Essential Competencies, Experiences, and Opportunities (in addition to those stated for all degree programs):

m.   Knowledge of research methods to be able to interpret information, demonstrate basic knowledge of historical, quantitative, and qualitative research, and to apply research findings to clinical practice in music therapy.

(106)

X.   GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN MUSIC

A.   Fundamental Purposes and Principles

2.   Relationships: Purposes, Content, and Requirements

a.   For each graduate program offered, logical and functioning relationships among the purposes, structure, and content. For each program, this includes decisions about:

(3) requirements in such areas as composition and performance, research, scholarship, preparation for teaching in terms of (a) the specialization, (b) support for the specializations, and (c) breadth of competence.

(113)

4.   Creative Work, Inquiry, Research, and Scholarship

a.   Professional work in music specializations is produced through creative endeavor, inquiry, and investigation. Each type of work and each individual work exhibits specific intent, content, methodology, and product. Individual or group decisions about these four elements shape the ways that creativity, inquiry, and investigation are used to produce work in various artistic, scholarly, pedagogical, or other specializations. Competency to practice in one or more fields of specialization includes the ability to conduct the types of creative work, inquiry, and investigation normally associated with the specialization(s) chosen.

b.   These types include, but are not limited to:

(2) The development and application or incorporation of various types of inquiry and investigation, including formal research or scholarship the musician wishes to use in the composition, performance, or production of a work of music.

(3) Research and scholarship as defined and practiced by professional humanists, scientists, and social scientists. In musicology and ethnomusicology, music theory, music specialization, and other academic specializations, this includes, but is not limited to, such areas as music history, analysis, and criticism; the relationship of music to inquiry in the humanities, the sciences, and the social sciences; the influences of music in and on larger social, cultural, educational, economic, and technological contexts; and the nature and application of music thinking and pedagogy.

(4) The development, compilation, and application or incorporation of inquiry results, including those produced by formal research and scholarship, in decisions about pedagogy and teaching, applications of music therapy, and policy-making in various contexts.

(113-114)

5.   Types of Degree Programs

Different specializations and different degree programs reflect specific goals with respect to relationships among fields of practice and approaches to inquiry, investigation, and to research and scholarship as presented above, whether broadly or narrowly defined. The basic degree frameworks are described below.

a.   Practice-Oriented Degrees

These degrees focus on the preparation of artists, pedagogues, therapists, or other music professionals.

Degree titles reflect level of study and content, and normally include Master of Music, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Music, and Doctor of Education.

b.   Research-Oriented Degrees

These degrees focus on the preparation of scholars and researchers.

Degree titles reflect level of study and content and normally include Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Music, and Doctor of Philosophy.

c.   Degrees Combining Research and Practice Orientations

These degrees focus on the simultaneous development of the ability to produce advanced research findings, often using the practices and protocols of the humanities, sciences, or social sciences, and the ability to utilize, combine, or integrate these findings with practice of the artistic, pedagogical, therapeutic, or other music-related professions.

Degree titles reflect level of study and content and are consistent with the character and requirements of the degree rubric chosen.

(114)

XIV.   SPECIFIC MASTER'S DEGREES

B.   Practice-Oriented Degrees

5.   The Master's Degree in Pedagogy

c. As a culminating demonstration of professional capability in the major field, the student must present a final project, research paper, and/or recital.

(122)

C.   Research-Oriented Degrees

1.   Masterís Degrees in Music History and Literature, Musicology, or Ethnomusicology

d. As a culminating demonstration of professional capability in the major field, the student must submit a final project that demonstrates advanced competence in research and writing in music history, musicology, or ethnomusicology. The final project may be a thesis, a series of special papers, or a written work of equivalent scope and depth.

(123)

2.   The Masterís Degree in Music Theory

c.   As a culminating demonstration of professional capability in the major field, the student must submit a final project that demonstrates advanced competence in theoretical research and writing.

(124)

D.   Degrees Combining Practice and Research Orientations

2.   Research and Practice Combinations

a.   Students demonstrate advanced competencies to develop research studies and utilize findings in fields of artistic or pedagogical practice.

b.   Essential competencies are, advanced knowledge and skills in one or more research methodologies, the ability to conceptualize problems generically, and the ability to connect research to creative work and problem solving in a field of practice.

d.   As a culminating demonstration of masterís level capability in relating or integrating research and practice, the student must complete a final project consistent with the goals of the program.

(124)

E.   The Masterís Degree in Music Education

4.   Some institutions make distinctions between practice-oriented and research-oriented programs. If an institution makes a distinction:

a.   A practice-oriented program emphasizes the extension of specialized performance and pedagogy competencies for music teachers. Institutions making such a designation should require at least one-half of the curriculum to be in performance and/or pedagogy. A final project in performance and/or pedagogy is recommended.

b.   A research-oriented program emphasizes theoretical studies and research projects in music education. If an institution uses such a designation, at least one-half of the curriculum should be required in music education research and the associated research areas. Normally, a research project or thesis is required.

(125)

F.   The Masterís Degree in Music Therapy

2.   The masterís degree shall also impart basic competence in one or more of the following areas:

a.   advanced topicsófor example, music therapy theory development, quantitative and qualitative research, supervision, college teaching, administration;

3.   Other studies in music related to the objectives of the degree comprise at least one-third of the curriculum. These studies may include course work in diverse areasófor example: performance, ethnomusicology, advanced musicianship, and analysis. The remainder of the curriculum consists of supportive studies which bear directly on the specific educational objectives of the degree program and which facilitate successful completion of the final project.

4.   A final thesis project, clinical project, or demonstration project is required.

(125)

XVI.   DOCTORAL DEGREES IN MUSIC

C.   Qualifying Prerequisites

Whatever their area of specialization, candidates for the doctorate in music shall demonstrate the following as a prerequisite to qualifying for the degree:

1.   Intellectual awareness and curiosity sufficient to predict continued growth and contribution to the discipline;

2.   Significant advanced, professional-level accomplishment in performance, composition, scholarship, or conducting;

3.   A knowledge of the techniques of music theory sufficient to perform advanced analysis;

5.   A knowledge of general bibliographical resources in music;

7.   Sufficient writing and speaking skills to communicate clearly and effectively to members of the scholarly community and the wider community, and especially in teaching situations;

8.   Research skills appropriate to the area of study as determined by the institution, such as computer programming, including Web-design language(s), statistics, foreign languages, non-traditional notation systems, and so forth.

(126-127)

D.   Types of Degrees

1.   Research-Oriented Degrees

At the doctoral level, the basic orientation is scholarly or research activity that makes an original contribution to the chosen field. Advanced scholarship and research are intensely disciplined efforts; intuition and creativity are important in the gathering, processing, and interpretation of information.

The program most appropriately culminates in the awarding of the degree, Doctor of Philosophy. It is recognized that some institutions offer research-oriented degrees with other titles.

2.   Practice-Oriented Degrees

At the doctoral level, the basic orientation is the highest level of professional practice emphasizing the creation or performance of musical works and the application and transmission of knowledge about musical works, or pedagogy, or the practice of music education in the elementary and secondary schools. Creation, performance, and teaching are highly disciplined efforts; inquiry and investigation, and often research and scholarship, are components of performance practice.

3.   Degrees with Unique Orientations

Doctoral programs may be developed that address various combinations of goals and objectives for research and practice in music and in the combination of music with other fields.

The content of such degrees must be consistent with the degree rubric and any other designations used in their titles.

4.   Specializations

d.   Doctorates in Music Education

The doctoral degree program in music education emphasizes the preparation of music administrators, teachers, and researchers who are able to think abstractly, generalize knowledge, carry on research and apply research results to their own areas of specialization, and communicate effectively both orally and in written form. The program involves the scholarly study of the philosophical and psychological foundations of music education and the processes of teaching and learning music. Additional studies are recommended in such areas as performance, aesthetics, ethnomusicology, history of the other arts, education, anthropology, and sociology.

e.   Doctorates in Musicology and Ethnomusicology

The doctoral degree program in musicology or ethnomusicology emphasizes the scholarly study of music and its relationship with other fields. Additional studies are recommended in such areas as aesthetics, social and political history, art history, anthropology, and psychology. Competencies include an understanding of the theories and methodologies of musicology and/or ethnomusicology; bibliography, research, and analytic techniques; reading ability in appropriate foreign languages; and writing skills.

f.   The Doctorate in Pedagogy

The doctoral degree program in pedagogy emphasizes the preparation of music teachers and researchers who conduct inquiries and develop methodologies and repertories for music study. Programs normally include, comparative methodolo-gies, research in music and music education, performance, and educational evalua-tion. Additional studies are recommended in such areas as psychology, sociology, aesthetics, and music history.

(128)

i.   The Doctorate in Music Theory

The doctoral degree program in music theory emphasizes studies in the organization, language, and grammar of music. Competencies also include a broad knowledge of music history, aesthetics, acoustics, technological means of research, and the ability to clarify issues of musical structure.

(129)

APPENDIX I.D
STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR
OPERA AND MUSICAL THEATRE PROGRAMS

VI.   General Guidelines: Graduate Academic Programs for the Singer-Actor

A.   Degree Types

Research-oriented and practice-oriented degrees are offered in all the categories outlined above. The title Doctor of Philosophy is normally reserved for the terminal research-oriented degree.

(155)

APPENDIX I.F
STUDIES IN MUSIC, BUSINESS, MUSIC INDUSTRY

VI.   Standards for a Liberal Arts Degree with a Comprehensive Major in Music Industry

D.   Essential Competencies

2.   Music Industry

f.   A basic understanding of how computers and information technologies influence the business environment, e-commerce, and the decisions of various sectors of the music industry.

g.   A basic knowledge of the major information and data sources that support or influence decision-making in the music industry and in business more generally.

3.   Business

c.   A basic understanding of principles, techniques, and common practices in business law, management, business ethics, and marketing, including but not limited to consumer behavior, market research, publicity, and public relations.

(177)

5.   General Studies

Students develop competencies determined by the institution, including but not limited to:

a.   The ability to communicate clearly, including the ability to analyze information critically and organize it in effective presentations.

b.   Mathematical skills sufficient to understand and undertake basic operations such as economic analysis, accounting, and marketing studies.

c.   Basic historical and cultural knowledge and perspective, preferably including one or more art forms other than music.

d.   Basic knowledge in one or more of the social sciences.

e.   Research skills sufficient to locate, correlate, and apply information and data to specific projects.

(178)


Last modified February 7, 2007
by Boris Teske, Prescott Memorial Library,
Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272